I have just completed a six week experiement to get pages listed in results pages higher. What I found that to get pages listed higher -- say instead of being on the second page of a query, or down at number 25 or worse on the first page, to get listed in the first three or four in the results page -- I did the following:

A. One page - one subject
Each page has its own subject. Therefore, when a particular subject is requested, my page is more relevant to that query as there is only one subject on the page e.g. Example of one subject on a page.

B. Heading Including Keywords
Each page heading has a good title with the name of my site and a title that has a good listing of keywords. [See the previous example where the keywords are 'Free Site Search'

C. Encourage people who link to the specific page to include keywords in the links
What I do is to email people and provide the whole link, including anchor text to refer to that page. When links contain the keywords as well, even better results are obtained.

What I am finding is that using this principle, I get a top listing of each of my web pages when those keywords are used by the information seeker in their query. The example I just gave is not yet listed in Google but look at these examples:

Google Search on keywords -- google third place

Google Search on Keywords -- google page rank test -- now this is a very good one as it is already producing good Google traffic

I would be keen to see other people's examples on this as well to see if there are any other factors to consider here as well. Do you have pages that arrive on top of results?